6.12c Participles.

When ing is added to a verb to form the present participle, it always results in an additional syllable. Examples:

obey-

suffic-

hid-

form-

ing,

ing,

ing,

ing,

When the letters ing are added to a base word they become a syllable; however, when a final consonant is doubled before adding the ing, the added consonant belongs in the syllable with the ing. Examples:

grab-

run-

bing

ning

Drill 14

Try the Exercise in WESBraille.

Reading Practice

Try the Practice in WESBraille.

EXERCISE

Try the Exercise in WESBraille.

SUMMARY OF CONTRACTION USAGE

  1. Whole-Word Contractions (alphabet contractions, and, for, of, the, with, child, shall, this, which, out, still)
    1. One-cell whole-word contractions (alphabet contractions)
      1. Used only to represent whole words, names, and the possessive form of proper names.
        I can see Will More's hat.

        EXCEPTION: d and s cannot be used for the musical notes do and so.
      2. Never used for parts of words or names.
        It is unlikely that William Peoples will eat the donut.

      3. When followed by an apostrophe these contractions can be used in 15 instances only. (see 4.2a).
        Go'n get Mom, she'll say it's OK.

      4. Are used in hyphenated compound words.
        doll-like self-knowledge
      5. Cannot be used in syllabicated words or as parts of words when divided between lines.
        un-like-ly sopho-
        more

      6. Require the double capital sign when fully capitalized in print.
        AS YOU LIKE IT
    2. And, for, of, the, with
      1. These whole-word contractions and the word a follow one another unspaced except where punctuation or composition signs intervene.
        for and of the people
        for, and of the people
      2. Are used in hyphenated compound words.
        will-o'-the-wisp
      3. Require the double capital sign when fully capitalized in print.
        FOR AND OF THE PEOPLE
    3. Child, shall, this, which, out, still
      1. These whole-word contractions are used in hyphenated compound words, whether written on one line or divided between lines.
        out-and-out out-and-
        out

      2. May be followed by an apostrophe only in child's and still's .
      3. Cannot be used as part of a solid compound word, even when divided between lines.
        grandchild grand-
        child

  2. Part-Word Contractions
    1. Rule for all part-word contractions (and, for, of, the, with, ch, sh, th, wh, ou, st, ar, ed, er, gh, ow, ble, ing and all part-word contractions yet to be learned)
      1. Always use a part-word contraction when all of the letters of the contraction fall into the same syllable.
        prof/it
        chry/san/the/mum
      2. Do not use a part-word contraction when it would overlap a major syllable division. Major syllable divisions occur:

        a) Between a prefix and a base or root word.
        professor

        b) Between a suffix and a base or root word.
        freedom

        c) Between the components of a solid compound word.
        foghorn

      3. Use a part-word contraction when it overlaps other, minor, syllable divisions.
        gob/let scan/dal
    2. When sh is used as an admonition to silence, the contraction IS NOT used, however, the contraction is used in shhh.
    3. When St. (with the period) is used as the abbreviation for Street or Saint, the contraction is used.
    4. The contractions for st and th are used in ordinal numbers.
      1st 4th
    5. The contractions ed, er, and ow are used for Ed (name), Ed. (editor), er (vocal sound) and ow (exclamation).
    6. The contractions for ing and ble are not used to begin a word but may begin a line in a divided word.
      bleeding bleed-
      ing