Lesson 2
Capitalization, Paragraphing, Punctuation

2.1 Capital Letters and Fully Capitalized Words [II.9]

In braille, there is no separate alphabet of capital letters. Instead, capitalization is indicated by placing the capital sign (dot 6) immediately before the letter affected. When all of the letters in a word are capitals, the double capital sign (dot 6 placed in two consecutive cells immediately before the word) is used. Examples:

New York


In proper names where the letters c or ac are in lower case, a single capital sign is placed before each capitalized letter. If part of the name is fully capitalized a double capital sign is placed before the fully capitalized portion. Examples:



The capital sign is known as a composition sign. Composition signs, which are peculiar to braille, are configurations that, when placed before a braille character, give it a special meaning or designate a change in print typeface. They are necessary because the dots, or bumps, that represent braille letters cannot be enlarged like print capitals or altered like print italics. You will learn four other composition signs as the course progresses.

Drill 4

Practice brailling the following to familiarize yourself with the use of the capital sign.

Try the drill in WESBraille.