Lesson 6

Part-Word Contractions for ar, ed, er, gh, ow, ble, ing

6.1 In General [XII.38]

The following contractions are part-word contractions only; they have no whole-word meanings.

Contraction

Part-Word Meaning

ar

ed

er

gh

ow

ble

ing

Except where specific rules limit their use, these contractions are used as parts of words wherever the letters they represent occur. Thus:

the sign for ed is used in:

Edith (Ed)i(th), need ne(ed), edelweiss (ed)elweiss, sedan s(ed)an, red r(ed)

the sign for ar is used in:

Arkansas (Ar)kansas, cheddar (ch)(ed)d(ar), garbage g(ar)bage, bare b(ar)e

the sign for er is used in:

error (er)ror, whimper (wh)imp(er), fern f(er)n, Peru P(er)u, sherry (sh)(er)ry

the sign for gh is used in:

ghoulish (gh)(ou)li(sh), laugh lau(gh), sight si(gh)t, thorough (th)or(ou)(gh)

the sign for ow is used in:

own (ow)n, towel t(ow)el, show (sh)(ow), toward t(ow)(ar)d, drowsy dr(ow)sy

the sign for ble is used in:

marble m(ar)(ble), Bible Bi(ble), goblet go(ble)t, problem pro(ble)m

the sign for ing is used in:

swinging sw(ing)(ing), ginger g(ing)(er), finger f(ing)(er), fringe fr(ing)e

When, at the end of a braille line, a one-cell part-word contraction forms the last syllable of a word, there is no need to carry that syllable over to a new line because it could be inserted in the same space that is occupied by the hyphen. However, if such a final syllable is followed by punctuation, the contraction and punctuation must be carried to the next line. Examples:

chart-
ed

flatter-
ing!