## 14.4 Mathematical Signs of Operation [VII.28.j]

Books on mathematics, pages of mathematical formulas, and the like, are brailled using a
system developed by Dr. Abraham Nemeth called the

Nemeth Braille Code for
Mathematics and Science Notation.

Transcriptions that include computer-related symbols
are brailled according to the rules in the

*Computer Braille Code.* These codes are quite
different from the literary braille code because they use a unique braille symbol for each
of the print mathematical and computer symbols, and should only be studied after the
literary braille code has been thoroughly mastered.

In general literature, the literary braille code uses words to express common
mathematical signs of operation for plus, minus, times, divided by, squared, equals, etc.
Examples:

When dimensions are given in print by using the times sign between measurements,
in braille the word by is substituted for the times sign. Examples:

• Note: For ease of reading it is suggested that a space be left before the contracted "to"
in a ratio. It is also suggested that a space be left before a contracted "by" when it
represents the times sign.