12.7a Stammering.

When brailling stammered words, the letter or contraction preceding and following the hyphen must be identical. Therefore, contractions cannot always be used. Examples:

m-m-m-mine s-s-say
g-ghost wh-which
f-f-father wh-where
b-by th-the way st-st-stop

EXCEPTION: When a word that can be represented by a one-cell whole-word contraction is stammered, such as c-c-can or d-d-do, the contraction is not used even though the letters are the same before and after the hyphen (). The use of the contractions would render the words in braille as can-can-can and do-do-do.

To, into, and by should be contracted and joined to a stammered word. Examples:

into th-theseto d-doby th-the way

Short-form words may be used in stammered words only if the short-form begins with the same letter or contraction as the stammered portion. Examples:

c-conceive (th)-(th)emselvesb-b-betwe(en)

When dividing a stammered word between lines, the stammered portion should not be separated from the rest of the word. However, such words may be divided after any syllable in the unstammered portion. Examples:

d-d-d-do [cannot divide]
th-th-think [cannot divide]