Caution must be exercised when using contractions in proper names. Pronunciations vary widely, and if you do not know and cannot find out the correct pronunciation of a name, it may be best not to use a contraction. For example, which is correct: Fran/cone or Fran/co/ne? Be/vers or Bev/ers? (When in doubt, spell it out!)
An effort has been made to include in the following list and the word list given in Appendix B of this manual as many proper names as possible that typify problems that may be encountered. Biographical and geographical dictionaries giving known pronunciations for thousands of proper names are available in bookstores and libraries.
In general, all of the rules that you have learned in the preceding lessons apply to the use of contractions in proper names. In the following list, names have been grouped under the rule that governs the possible contractions in them. Some of the examples used could be applied to more than one rule.
A. Same Syllable Rule [X.34.a(1)]. When all of the letters of a contraction fall in the same syllable the contraction is used.
C. Prefix with Base/Root Word Rule [X.34.b(2)(3)]. A contraction is not used when it would overlap a major syllable division between a prefix and a base or root word.
D. Suffix with Base/Root Word Rule [X.34.b(2)]. A contraction is not used when it would overlap a major syllable division between a suffix and a base or root word.
E. Solid (Unhyphenated) Compound Word Rule [X.34.b(4)]. A contraction is not used when it would overlap base words that are joined to form an unhyphenated compound word.
• Note: Because the name Charlestown is a compound word, the st contraction cannot be used. However, in the easily recognized shortened form, Charleston, the st contraction is used. Other examples:
F. Hyphenated Compound Word Rule. Although Rule XI.36.a. says that one-cell, whole-word contractions may be joined to other words by the hyphen to form genuine hyphenated compound words, it is suggested that for clarity they not be used in hyphenated proper names.
In the case of Chou En-lai, although there is no specific rule that would prevent the use of the part-word contraction for en, for clarity it is not used. ()
G. Digraph and Trigraph Rule [X.34.b(5), XIII.42.c]. Do not use a contraction if it would disturb the pronunciation of a digraph or trigraph.
H. Diphthong Rule [V.25]. The letters comprising the diphthongs ae and oe should not form part of a contraction.
I. Adjoining Consonants Rule [X.34.b(6)]. A contraction is not used when two adjoining consonants are pronounced separately.
J. Difficulty in Pronunciation Rule [X.34.b(7)]. Do not use a contraction or short-form word if it would cause difficulty in pronunciation.
K. gh, sh, th in Proper Names Rule [XII.38.e]. In proper names, when the letters gh, sh, and th are pronounced as one sound, they are contracted. If a syllable division occurs between them, they are not contracted.
L. One-Cell Whole-Word Contraction Rule [XI. 36.c]. These contractions are used for whole proper names only — and may be followed by an apostrophe and s.
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M. One-Cell Part-Word Contraction Rule [XII.38.a, d]. The contractions for ing and ble cannot begin a name. Part-word signs that have no whole word meaning are contracted when they stand alone.
|In/ge [or] Inge||Blev/in||Ed|
N. to, into, by Rule [XIII.41.d]. These contractions cannot be used as proper names.
|Colonel By||David To|
O. ea and the Double Letter Contractions Rule [XIII.42, 42.c]. These contractions are used only in the middle of a name. Preference is given to other contractions over ea and the double letter contractions.
P. be, con, dis Rule [XIII.43, 43.b]. As long as these contractions constitute a syllable, they are used following an apostrophe. They are also used for the first syllable of a name following a prefix such as Mac or Mc.
Q. com Rule [XIII.44]. When com is capitalized, the contraction may be used in a name following Mac or Mc. The letters com need not form a syllable.
R. Initial-Letter Contraction Rule [XIV.45, 45.a]. These contractions are used in names only when they retain their original pronunciation and follow all other rules for initial-letter contractions.
S. Final-Letter Contraction Rule [XV.46]. Use these contractions only in the middle or at the end of a name. They cannot be used for a whole name.
T. Short-Form Word Rule [XVI.47.b, 47.g]. Within proper names shortform words are used only for whole words.
|Great Britain||Jo Goodwin|
A letter sign (to be studied in the next lesson) is necessary if a name could be misread as a short-form word. [XVI.47.i]
• Note: For readability, it is recommended that short-form words not be used in hyphenated compound proper names. Example:
Treat each numbered line as a new paragraph. Leave three blank cells between each word. Divide words at the end of the line where possible. Repeat this drill until you are comfortable with the short-form words and their variations.
Try the Drill in WESBraille.
See print version in Appendix A.
[The format for brailled letters of correspondence will be studied in Lesson 13.]EXERCISE
Try the Exercise in WESBraille.
Initial- and Final-Letter Contractions
Know and ought need not always retain original sound.
One is used anytime the letters o and n are in the same syllable.
Some is used only when it forms a complete syllable in the base word.
Part need not retain original sound. Cannot be used if par is a prefix.
equally totally lioness baroness
fever-- fev(er) [not] f(ever)
sword-- sword [not] s(word)
mongoose-- mongoose [not] m(ong)oose
Where a choice must be made between two alternative contractions, take the following steps. (Remember that these are general rules and that there are exceptions.)
|pranced-- pr(ance)d [not] pranc(ed)||whence-- (wh)(ence) [not] (wh)(en)ce|
|bubble-- bub(ble) [not] bu(bb)le||wither-- (with)(er) [not] wi(the)r|
|coffee-- c(of)fee [not] co(ff)ee||meander-- me(and)(er) [not] m(ea)nd(er)|
|theater-- (the)at(er) [not] (th)(ea)t(er)||effort-- ef(for)t [not] e(ff)ort|
|phoned-- phon(ed) [not] ph(one)d||adhered-- adh(er)(ed) [not] ad(here)d|
EXCEPTION: The two-cell ence contraction is preferred over a one-cell contraction so long as no more space is required.commenced-- (com)m(ence)d [not] (com)m(en)c(ed)
fencer-- f(ence)r [not] f(en)c(er)
|peddled-- p(ed)dl(ed) [not] pe(dd)l(ed)||dear-- de(ar) [not] d(ea)r|
wherever-- (wh)(er)(ever) [not] (where)v(er)
noblesse-- nob(less)e [not] no(ble)sse
recreation-- recre(ation) [not] recr(ea)(tion)
where'er-- (wh)(er)e'(er) [not] (where)'(er)
Mrs. Whatshername-- (Wh)atsh(er)(name) [not] (Wh)at(sh)(er)(name)
I'll see little Tommy Friend at 3 o'clock this afternoon.
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|Firsthand Clothing Co.|