8.3 More Short-Form Words [XVI]

Following are six more short-form words to be memorized. If the word to, into, or by falls before a word that has a short-form, the contraction is used and joined to the short-form word.

Short-
form
Meaning Short-
form
Meaning Short-
form
Meaning
ab about (be)c because f(st) first
abv above (be)l below grt great

Example:

Because of the rains, the water above the falls was swift. Below the falls it fell into first a deep pool and then rushed about the great rocks.




Drill 18

Practice brailling the following words and sentences. In the word section, leave three spaces between words and do not divide words between lines. In the numbered section, divide words as usual.

Try the Exercise in WESBraille.

Reading Practice

See print version in Appendix A. (Not available in WESBraille)

EXERCISE

Try the Exercise in WESBraille.

SUMMARY OF CONTRACTION USAGE

Lower Signs

III. Lower Signs In Succession Rule
  1. Any number of lower-sign contractions may follow one another without a space provided that one of them is in contact with a character containing dot 1 or dot 4.
    to disengage
  2. When a series of lower signs is not in contact with a dot 1 or 4, the last possible contraction is spelled out.
    to disen-

    gage

IV. Whole-Word Contractions (in, enough, be, his, was, were, to, into, by)
  1. In, enough, be, his, was, were
    1. Must stand alone. Cannot be in contact with a letter, word, contraction, or punctuation that either precedes or follows it.

      Let it be enough for now.

      "Were you?"

      Go in.

      break-in

      break-

      in

    2. May be preceded by composition signs.

      Were you?

  2. To, into, by
    1. These contractions cannot stand alone. They must be joined to the following word, contraction, number, or composition sign.

      by train

      9 to 5

      to this spot

    2. These contractions cannot be used in hyphenated compound words.

      by-and-by

    3. With punctuation

      a) Can be preceded by punctuation.

      "by now"

      b) Cannot be followed by punctuation.

      I'll drop by.

    4. With composition signs

      a) Can be preceded by composition signs

      By now

      "By now"

      b) Can be followed by composition signs.

      By George!

    5. When one of these words comes before any other whole-word lower-sign, the last possible contraction must be spelled out. to be
    6. These contractions are used when they come before part-word lower signs.

      by consent

      to distract

    7. When the contraction for into cannot be used, the in should be contracted.

      Go into "O'Brians."

    8. When there is not room at the end of a line for one of these contractions and the following word or portion thereof, take the contraction to the next line.
V. Part-Word Contractions (in, en, be, con, dis, com, bb, cc, dd, ff, gg, ea)
  1. In, en
    Are used whenever they occur as long as they are in contact with a sign containing a dot 1 or 4.

    ingenuous

    in-disin-
    genuousgenuous
  2. Be, con, dis
    1. Are used only when they constitute an entire syllable at the beginning of a word — or at the beginning of a line in a divided word unless they constitute the last syllable of such a divided word.

      been

      belief

      disc

      distant

      mis-
      conduct
      may-
      be
    2. Are used following the hyphen in a hyphenated compound word.

      make-believe

      dual-control

    3. Are not used when in contact with the hyphen in syllabicated words.

      con-ta-gion

      dis-creet

    4. Are used following punctuation, but not preceding it.

      O'Connell

      (be)tray

    5. The contraction for con cannot be used as a whole word as in con game.
  3. Com
    1. Is used only at the beginning of a word or at the beginning of a line in a divided word—but it need not constitute a syllable.

      come

      comb

      ex-

      commander

    2. Cannot be used when in contact with a hyphen, apostrophe, or dash—but can follow opening quotation marks.

      ex-commander

      Hey!—come on.

      com'ere

      "Come in."

  4. Be, con, dis, com in abbreviations
    These contractions can be used in the abbreviation of a word only when they can be used in the whole word—unless the contraction would constitute the entire abbreviation.
    Benj. (Benjamin) dist. (district)
    Con. (Concerto) ex-con
    Belg. (Belgium)
  5. Bb, cc, dd, ff, gg, ea
    1. Are used only between letters and/or contractions within a word.

      sniffs

      sniffed

      sniff

    2. Are never used when in contact with punctuation.
      diff'rent sheriff's
      egg-shaped sea-island
      feature

      fea-

      ture

  6. Part-word contractions are not used when their use would alter the usual form of a word or cause difficulty in pronunciation.
    uneasy [not] un(ea)sy
    overblended [not] ov(er)(ble)nd(ed)
    undisturbed [not] un(dis)turb(ed) [or] undi(st)urb(ed)
    disingenuous [not] (dis)(ing)(en)u(ou)s
    genealogy [not] g(en)(ea)logy
    impermeable [not] imp(er)m(ea)(ble)

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