8.1a In general.

There are three whole-word lower-sign contractions in addition to those studied in the preceding lesson. They are:

Contraction Whole Word Meaning

Unlike the whole-word lower-signs learned in lesson 7 (in, enough, be, his, was, were), which must always be preceded and followed by a space, the contractions for to, into, and by are always joined to the word, contraction, composition sign, number, or symbol that follows. This rule prevents by from being read as was. These contractions are never used as parts of words. Examples:

Toby was to go by the bank at noon in order to put the deed into the safe.

The bylaws are written by and for the people.